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Glossary of OTT Terms

Be an OTT pro (or at least sound like one)! Get to know some of the streaming and OTT video terms you'll hear us use and you should know as an OTT provider, whether you're a media veteran or creating a new OTT business.

4K - A very high-definition video display, spanning roughly 4000 pixels wide. See also: HD.

Adaptive Bitrate (ABR) Streaming - We automatically stream multiple resolutions of your live and on-demand video to accommodate viewers with varying degrees of network bandwidth or internet speed. Adaptive streaming limits timeouts or buffering on the user side, giving them a smoother live video experience. More specifically, adaptive bitrate streaming is a method of video streaming over HTTP where the source content is encoded at multiple bit rates.

Addressable advertising - Advertising that is displayed to consumers or households based on their behaviors or interests. Also referred to as targeted advertising.

Amazon Fire TV – A device by Amazon that plugs into your TV, allowing you to download apps and stream video directly over the internet. Similar devices include Apple TV, Roku, etc.

Amazon Fire Stick – A device by Amazon that plugs into your TV, allowing you to download apps and stream video directly over the internet. Similar devices include Apple TV, Roku, etc.

API (Application Programming Interface) - Software that enables different software programs to interact with each other using computer language.

App Store – A marketplace that allows businesses to sell downloadable applications to users. Examples include the iOS app store, Google Play store, Roku channel store, etc.

Apple TV – A device by Apple that plugs into a TV, allowing users to download apps and stream video directly over the internet. Similar devices include Amazon Fire TV, Roku, etc.

Aspect Ratio - The proportional relationship between an image’s or player’s width and its height. For example, the standard television screen ratio is 4:3 (4 units wide by 3 units high) or 1.33 (the width is 1.33 times the height). The new “wide screen” television ratio is 16:9 (1.78), and many new video cameras have the option to record using this format. Theatrical film aspect ratios vary, but the most common is 18.5:10 (1.85). Learn more about our recommended size and aspect ratio for some basic graphics supported by the Endavo platform. 

AVOD – Ad-based Video on Demand. A type of Video on Demand service that makes money by playing ads throughout. For example, YouTube’s free platform plays ads in order to generate revenue.

Bandwidth - A measure of the amount of data that can travel through a network. We use the term to track the amount of traffic delivered over the Endavo network for your account, typically measured in Gigabytes (GBs). 

Buffering - Before a video can play, a certain amount of pre-loading data must be downloaded to stream.

Byte - One of the basic units for measuring digital information, especially relevant to understanding storage capacity on computer disks. 8 bits comprise a byte. Roughly 1000 bytes equals one kilobyte. 1000 kilobytes is one megabyte or meg. 1000 megabytes is a gigabyte. 1000 gigabytes is a terabyte.

CDN (Content Delivery Network) – A system of servers distributed in different locations to give local users a faster internet loading speed. For example, a user in Los Angeles can view content from an Australian website on an LA-based server using a CDN, helping it load more quickly.

Chromecast – A device by Google that plugs into your TV, allowing you to download apps and stream video directly over the internet. Similar devices include Apple TV, Roku, etc.

Closed Captioning – A transcript of a video’s dialogue that plays simultaneously with the video. 

Codec (Coder/Decoder):  Software or driver that adds support for certain video/audio formats to an operating system.  An operating system using a codec will recognize the format the codec is built for and “decode” it allowing you to play the audio/video file, or in some cases it will change the file format (“encode“) allowing it to play.  

CPM – CPM stands for Cost per Mille (1000). Meaning the cost an advertiser must pay to have an ad viewed by 1000 people. 

Digital Rights Management – The act of protecting online intellectual property and ownership of video and other content.

Encoding - The process of converting from a video source to a format that can be streamed over the Internet.  For example, Endavo automatically encodes each video uploaded, or live stream ingested, into our platform into MP4 (H.264) and in multiple bitrates, in order to support adaptive bitrate streaming (ABR) for optimal viewer experience.

Encryption - Locking content by applying an algorithm in conjunction with an encryption key.  Encrypted content cannot be viewed unless it is decrypted, requiring the corresponding encryption key. 

FAST - Free ad-supported streaming TV. Typically, FAST channels are programmed into TV-like linear channels that are free to watch but with advertising. Endavo customers can create FAST channels using our Virtual Live Channel* platform (*coming soon as of 2/8/22)

Frame rate - The rate at which video frames or animated images display as the video or animated file executes (measured in fps, or frames per second).

Geo-Blocking: The ability to restrict access based on the location of the individual attempting to see the content. This is typically determined by IP address. (Geo-Allow is allowing access to content based on a specific location.)

H.264 - Ideal for web videos and streaming, H.264 a compression format that lets you stream MPEG-4 (MP4) video over the web without maxing out your bandwidth.

HD (High Definition) – A high resolution video display, spanning over 720 pixels wide. Typically meant to signify videos that are 1080 pixels wide (1080p).

HLS – HLS stands for HTTP Live Streaming. A method used to live stream over the internet more effectively. It breaks the feed into smaller chunks, allowing services to share it effectively.

iOS - (formerly iPhone OS) A mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone and iPod Touch

IPTV – IPTV stands for Internet Protocol Television. It is an umbrella term that refers to the sharing of TV programs online. 

Latency - The amount of time it takes for data to reach one point to another (e.g. the video from the event to be seen by the viewer). Synonymous with ‘lag’ and ‘delay.’ In livestreaming, lower latency is ideal. 

Linear TV - A real-time television service that broadcasts scheduled programs, conventionally over the air or through satellite/cable, not streamed to a specific user. Nearly, all broadcast television services are considered linear TV.

Live Channel - Similar to linear TV, a live channel is a 24 x 7 continuously streaming channel. On the Endavo platform, a live channel is ingested into our platform from an outside server and we restream the channel on our platform 24 x 7. (see also Virtual Live Channel) 

Live Event - A live event is an event that is scheduled to stream live on a specific date and duration. On the Endavo platform, a live event stream is ingested into our platform from live event venue and we restream the event during the event schedule. (see also Virtual Live Event)

Live Stream – A real-time, live video feed being shared over the internet directly to specific users. 

Localization - Adapting a product or content to a specific locale, region, or market.

Mobile App – Short for Mobile Application. A downloadable program designed for phones or tablets.

Metadata - The information that identifies and describes the contents of a medium. This information can include media-specific information such as: Title, artist(s), production company, seasonal/episodic description, original release date, etc. Metadata can also include business-related information such as: pricing and availability.

MVPD – MVPD Stands for Multichannel Video Programming Distributor. Meaning a service that gives users a variety of TV channels, such as Cable or Satellite TV.

OTT (Over-the-Top) – OTT, short for “Over the Top,” refers to video content that can be streamed over the internet. This is in contrast to traditional video streaming via cable or satellite. To learn more about OTT, click here.

OTT App – An application that allows users to stream videos via the internet. Typically available on TVs, tablets, mobile phones, gaming consoles, etc.

OTT Streaming – Video consumption that takes place over the internet.

Pay-Per-View – A type of video service where users pay per video, usually used for live streaming but can also be used for on-demand video (TVOD).

Resolution - The quality of an image or video file often determined by the number of pixels displayed on the screen, usually noted as a pixel width and height dimension.

Roku - Roku is a brand of digital media streaming devices that offer content from a variety of services and providers through downloadable channels. Roku players connect to your TV or operate as proprietary software within a smart TV using a wired or wireless internet connection. 

RSS (Really Simple Syndication) - Format for storing online information to make it readable by many different kinds of software. Many blogs and web sites feature RSS feeds, constantly updated in a form that can be read by a newsreader or aggregator. MRSS (Media RSS) is used for video feeds. 

RTMP (Realtime Messaging Protocol) - A protocol used for streaming audio, video and data over the Internet between a Flash player and a server or between servers. For live streaming on Endavo, we prefer to ingest a RTMP stream from the local server. 

Streaming Video - Video content that is played directly over the internet. Can be live, or pre-recorded, but does not need to be downloaded in order to view.

SVOD – Subscription Video on Demand. It is a type of Video on Demand service that users need to subscribe to in order to access. For example, Netflix is a SVOD service. 

Syndicated Video - Republishing content on additional platforms reaching a broader audience.

Traditional Pay-TV Services - Often referred to as "cable", these are traditional players in the pay-TV market such as telephone, cable TV, and satellite providers that serve specific geographic footprints via a network that they manage and control. Historically, pay-TV has been delivered to customer premise equipment (CPE), such as a cable box, that is specifically configured for use with the network.

Trailer – A short segment from a larger work meant to entice users to watch more or purchase. Usually referring to marketing materials for an upcoming film.

Transcoding:  A process that changes the video or audio features of a file, such as the resolution or bit rate, by changing portions of the audio/visual content but not by reconstructing the content (as it would if encoded). 

TV Everywhere - an initiative introduced in the US by Comcast in 2009, whereby pay-TV subscribers can authenticate themselves to access pay-TV content from mobile apps that are designed and controlled by participating major networks and content providers.

TVOD – Transaction Video on Demand. A type of Video on Demand service where users pay per video. For example, Amazon Prime sells access to individual movie titles. 

tvOS – Apple’s native Operating System for their Apple TV product line.

vMVPD – Virtual Multichannel Video Programming Distributor. Meaning a service that gives users a variety of TV channels over the internet through a subscription service, like cable TV. What makes these services distinct from "cable" is that they are available as OTT services and not limited to specific broadband networks. vMVPDs often include access to major local television stations as part of the subscription package.

Virtual Live Channel - A 24x7 live channel that is programmed on the Endavo platform using uploaded videos, live slots (if streaming in live events, news, etc.) and slates. Virtual live channels can be programmed as daily, weekly, monthly loops or continuously programmed. 

Virtual Live Event - A live event that is scheduled on a specific date and duration (start/end time) and programmed on the Endavo platform with uploaded videos, live slots, and slates. The virtual live event will stream live on the Endavo platform during the event schedule. 

VOD – Video on Demand. A system where users can choose which programming to watch at any time, rather than watching a pre-existing schedule of videos (like on cable TV).